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The Rice Cultivation Civilization of Mandan Achang People in Longling


Busy in summer solstice, planting seedlings on fire. Entering the rainy season, the Achang people gradually become busy, and their figures are shaking everywhere in the farmland. The farmers speed up their pace, catch up with the season, and grab the season. Achang people set off a boom in rice transplanting. In the long history of history, the farming culture of the Achang people has a long history. From slash and burn cultivation to human plowing and cattle farming to mechanized agricultural processes, the Achang people have summed up some advanced farming experience, which has promoted the development of agriculture and increased output.
The Rice Cultivation Civilization of Mandan Achang People in Longling
Sanyuetian and April, Sunbird (Dujuan) reminds ignorant people. In March, the cuckoo cried to remind the forgetful that it was time to plant seeds. Achang men should consider planting and planting seedlings, and women planting corn. The farming methods of the Achang people have a unique culture. According to the 66-year-old Shi Dapa, he has been learning farmland farming since he was a child. When he was seven or eight years old, he showed his family cows. When he was 11 years old, he learned farming and farming with an adult. At that time, he had not yet plowed high, and could not hold the plow, so he had to shovel the ridge. His parents taught agricultural knowledge in the field. He followed his parents to learn farming techniques and experience and constantly summarized in practice. Now he has rich farming experience. From the period of the Republic of China to the period of co-operation, "Bai Zhang San" and "Relying on Mother Dilute" were commonly planted rice by local residents. One catty of grain seeds can get 12 seedlings. Now the new variety can get 70 seedlings per catty of grain seeds. Mainly pay attention to the rice varieties and seedling methods. Older varieties have a low germination rate and lack of chemical fertilizers. They can only use organic farm manure or mixed leaves in paddy fields as fertilizer. Use your feet to bury the leaves in the soil of the seedling field to fully ferment and improve the soil. After two days of burying, start raking, level the seedling field, and plant the seedlings after the water is clear. This is called water seedling. After the Qingming Festival, the Achang people began to sow seedlings. They had to plant seedlings for 10 days before and after Xiaoman. Only the seedlings that came out were healthy. It is said that you can't talk nonsense when planting seedlings, even if someone greets you, you can't say hello, otherwise the grain will be eaten by the birds or the seedlings will be eaten by the cattle, destroying the seedling field. After planting seedlings for 5 days, a new root system will emerge. After seven days, the water and base fertilizer must be withdrawn. If the water is not withdrawn, the seed will float on the surface of the water. The roots of the seedlings are not planted in the soil. The water is usually withdrawn in the evening. In the morning, the roots of the seedlings will be planted about a centimeter in the soil. Then gradually developed into seedlings, cultivated into strong seedlings, the new varieties can be transplanted after 35 days.
The cow farming method requires two plows and two rakes. Generally, you need to plow from the outer ridge to level the field, or make the inner ridge slightly lower than the outer ridge, which is good for water storage and grain accumulation. The first time I plowed Bantian, there was no chemical fertilizer in those years. In the twelfth lunar month of the tenth winter, the early Bantian was plowed. The weeds were frozen by the frost, and the farmland soil was extremely fertile. If there is a lot of grass, you need a bunch of seeds. After raking one row, you need to shovel the ridge and the upper ridge. Using a hoe to remove weeds on the ridge is called "shoveling ridge", and using thin mud to wrap the ridge is called "shanging ridge". Planting seedlings started after another rake. In the past, five or six seedlings were used to plant the old varieties, one grain seed was needed for one mu, and fourteen five grains were harvested. Now, only one to two seedlings are needed for each bunch, and two catties per acre. Grain seeds, the output is as high as more than 30 baskets. As the Mandan area has a subtropical monsoon climate, the planting time is mostly after the Dragon Boat Festival, which has the characteristics of late planting and early harvest. Rice transplanting is generally carried out by Achang women. There are many farmland and large planting area. The neighboring villages help each other and exchange jobs, forming a good situation of solidarity and mutual assistance. The method of planting pays attention to reasonable and dense planting, line by line, and there is a poem: "Put the green seedlings in the field, and you will see the sky in the water when you lower your head. The six roots are peaceful and the way is the way, and backward is forward." It reflects that the farmer is planting seedlings with his back in the rice field, with no distractions and no distractions. Only the blue sky and white clouds reflected in the water and the seedlings in his hands are in front of him. When he retreats while planting the seedlings, when he retreats to the edge of the field, the harvest is green. There is also a local proverb: "If you plant seedlings and plant water seedlings, you will be fierce to eat, and you will eat pine; if you plant seedlings in the tail water, you will make pine and eat fierce." At the beginning of farming, people are energetic and work very energetically. They don't eat much. Later, the body becomes tired, dry and eat a lot, which reflects the tired life state of people when farming.
Make the fields, plant the seedlings, plant three points, and manage seven points. After the rice is transplanted, the water, the water mouth, the head and tail of the field, the inner ridge and the outer ridge, and the field have to be managed diligently. Only a year's harvest can be hoped for. Diverting water from clearing ditch, storing water to soak the field, tying seedlings and tying seedlings, ploughing the field, planting seedlings and planting seedlings, the entire process and each link requires intensive cultivation. There are certain methods for how to make the rice fertile and how to increase the grain production The truth contains the unique rice culture and farming culture of the Achang nationality.
Plowing a cow in the rice field, the Achang man waved his whip with his left hand and held the plowshare with his right hand, urging the farming cows to scream. The new rolled mud went back and forth in the farmland, turning into mud waves with the water, waving his hoe, and eradicating everything. Dig a hoe to build new ridges to store water and food. In the hazy rain curtain, the Achang women rolled up their trousers, rolled up their sleeves, wore hats and raincoats, planted seedlings, planted grains, and planted hope. The sunset is on the west mountain, the sunset divides the dividends, standing ditch heads, overlooking layers of terraced fields, a round of red sun, a dam field dyed red, the setting sun, mountains, cattle, and the plows standing on the ridges, reflected in the fields and water, the sky and water are the same color , The beautiful landscape of the earth, picturesque. Tractors, fields, oxen, villages, peasant women, mountain springs, and finally discovered how good it is to have a home and guard a peaceful field...
Times are changing, and the pace of civilization is accelerating. Now people use farming machinery, mechanized production, based on the advanced farming experience, the introduction of fine varieties and advanced scientific rice cultivation techniques, combined with modern farming methods, scientific and reasonable management methods, and continue to promote grain production. The unique geographical location and climatic conditions make the cultivated rice sweet and delicious, and the taste is excellent. The surplus grain can also be used for winemaking. The earthen pot rice wine of the Achang nationality is mellow and mellow, which is very popular among the local people. The hard-working and simple Achang people use agricultural knowledge and long-term accumulation of farming experience to cultivate a better tomorrow with both hands.

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